FLAIR: A Metric for Liquidity Provider Competitiveness in Automated Market Makers

Published in preliminary work, 2023

This paper aims to enhance the understanding of liquidity provider (LP) returns in automated market makers (AMMs). LPs face market risk as well as adverse selection due to risky asset holdings in the pool that they provide liquidity to and the informational asymmetry between informed traders (arbitrageurs) and AMMs. Loss-versus-rebalancing (LVR) quantifies the adverse selection cost (Milionis et al. 2022a), and is a popular metric to evaluate the flow toxicity to an AMM. However, individual LP returns are critically affected by another factor orthogonal to the above: the competitiveness among LPs. This work introduces a novel metric for LP competitiveness, called FLAIR (short for fee liquidity-adjusted instantaneous returns), that aims to supplement LVR in assessments of LP performance to capture the dynamic behavior of LPs in a pool. Our metric reflects the characteristics of fee return-on-capital, and differentiates active liquidity provisioning strategies in AMMs. To illustrate how both flow toxicity, accounting for the sophistication of the counterparty of LPs, as well as LP competitiveness, accounting for the sophistication of the competition among LPs, affect individual LP returns, we propose a quadrant interpretation where all of these characteristics may be readily visualized. We examine LP competitiveness in an ex-post fashion, and show example cases in all of which our metric confirms the expected nuances and intuition of competitiveness among LPs. We believe that our metric to assess LP competitiveness has particular merit in empirical analyses, and will be able to better inform practical assessments of AMM pools.

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